Yorkshire face an uphill battle to avoid defeat in their fifth Specsavers County Championship match of the season at the Kia Oval having been made to follow-on after lunch on day three.
Joe Root’s side replied to Surrey’s first-innings 414 with 229, falling from 40-3 overnight.
The England Test captain was trapped lbw, playing around his pad for 14, by on-song left-arm seamer Sam Curran six balls into the day.
He later returned to the crease in Yorkshire’s second innings, which started midway through the afternoon, and contributed 23 to a close of play 142-5.
Yorkshire will start day four 43 runs behind.
Root’s Test team-mate Jonny Bairstow was the county’s standout performer with the bat, posting an exhilarating 95 off 94 balls in which he passed 6,000 career runs in the Championship.
Second time around, Bairstow was unbeaten on 25.
Unfortunately, nobody else made it into the thirties in Yorkshire’s first innings as batting issues continue to plague them.
Curran, who turns 20 next month, had a day to remember.
Highlights from Day 3 at The Kia Oval.
He finished with figures of 6-54 in the first innings and was handed his Surrey first-team cap at lunch, their fourth youngest player to receive that honour.
When he wrapped up Yorkshire’s first innings by getting Josh Shaw caught in the slips for 29, it was his 100th career first-class wicket – also Surrey’s fourth youngest to that milestone.
Bairstow spoke briefly at the end of Saturday’s rain-affected second day, which saw the afternoon and evening sessions washed out, and said that batting was at its trickiest against the new ball.
And, unfortunately for Yorkshire, so it proved.
Having removed Adam Lyth and Che Pujara on day two, Curran added the cheap wickets of Harry Brook and Tim Bresnan to that of Root before later getting Shaw.
Bairstow, who offered very tough chances to point and bowler Dernbach on 19 and 66, looked in supreme touch.
He hit 10 fours in a 46-ball fifty, and a hundred before lunch was looking well within his grasp. He ended up reaching the break on 87.
He played confidently all around the wicket, only to fall five short of three figures when he drove at Dernbach and edged him to Rikki Clarke at slip to leave the score at 203-9 in the 51st over.
Yorkshire’s second innings started badly in the 14 overs before tea.
Alex Lees pushed at Dernbach and edged him to second slip for four before Pujara played on and lost his middle stump to Curran for nought as the score slipped to 10-2 in the sixth over.
Lyth and Root steadied after tea, although the latter survived a huge caught behind down leg appeal from Clarke with the first ball after tea when on five. Surrey were convinced they had their man.
Later, however, they did when fledgling off-spinner Amar Virdi bowled him through the gate to end a 56-run stand with Lyth and leave the score at 66-3 in the 29th.
Lyth went on to post 58, but he was Virdi’s second victim when caught at slip in the 39th over with 99 on the board. Brook followed lbw shortly afterwards.
Bairstow and Jack Leaning (13 not out) ensured there was no further damage by batting through to close.